The four sights are four incidents in the legend of Gautama Buddha’s life which eventually made him realise the fleetingness and extreme unsatisfying nature of existence.
According to the legend, before these experiences, Siddhārtha Gautama had been restricted to his royal residence by his father King Suddhodana, who was worried that he would incline toward becoming an ascetic if he encountered the sufferings of life according to the prophecy. Even so, on his first journey out of the royal residence with his charioteer Channa, he witnessed the four sights: an old man, a diseased man, a dead man and an ascetic.
One day, as he left the palace to see the world outside, he saw the sufferings of life. Inside the limited bounds of the palace, he just saw the good side of life, however the darker side, the frequent part of humanity, was intentionally hidden from him. What was rationally imagined by him was witnessed in reality for the first time. On his way to a park, his perceptive eyes met the peculiar sights of an aged man, a sick man, and a dead body.
The initial three sights convincingly demonstrated to him, the relentless idea of life, and the all inclusive infirmity of humankind. The fourth, the monk, suggested the way to conquer the ills of life and to achieve peace. These four surprising sights served to build the inclination in him to detest and disavow the world.
Understanding the uselessness of pleasires, and valuing renunciation, he chose to leave the world looking for Truth and Eternal Peace.
At the point when he decided this, the news of the birth of a child was passed on to him while he was going to leave the park. He was not thrilled, but rather considered his first and sole child as an obstruction. A normal father would have respected the upbeat greetings, however Prince Siddhattha shouted – “An obstacle (rāhu) has been conceived; a shackle has emerged”. The newborn child was in like manner named Rāhula by Suddhodhana.
These perceptions influenced him greatly. They made him understand the sufferings of all creatures, and forced him to start his spiritual life as a samanna. This eventually led to his enlightenment. The spiritual sentiment of direness experienced by Siddhārtha Gautama is alluded to as samvega.